The Purposes and Principles of Modern Sports (Conference paper)
Keywords: sport, competition, person, life
Klíčová slova: sport, soutěžení, osoba, život
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Now in our country all spheres of life have appeared under magnifying glass of publicity. Everywhere there is a revision of values in favors of the person. Whether the turn of sports has come also? Changes in modern sports will be defined by clearness of the purposes and criteria of quality. The sports purpose is the maximum perfection of abilities of the person.
Modern sports can be subdivided on “big” – professional, and mass – national. Sports what it arose initially and what should remain, basically – national sports, children’s sports. Today it is possible to talk only about the big sports. Level of the master of sports basically is accessible to any person. Under it the norm also pays off. The first category or the master is in general already powerful person, and the further movement depends on endowments, predisposition.
The work purpose is studying of problems of modern sports, definition of its characteristic main principles of sports and their realization in practice. Thereupon are considered.
The analysis of essence of sports and practice generalization in this sphere allow to consider as sports principles: humanism, companionable interaction, unselfishness. These principles in unity allow realizing sports main objective effectively: the maximum perfection of abilities of the person.
The humanism as sports principle defines its orientation for the blessing of the person, on assistance to its maximum development. Sports allow to improve the person throughout all his life. It is provided with system of gradually raising loadings stimulating adaptation, expressed not only in accustoming to specific loadings, but also in the general strengthening of resistibility of an organism to influence of adverse factors. Adaptation to very high loadings provides growth of specific resistibility and simultaneous decrease in the general stability of an organism is a condition in sports name «the higher form», allowing establishing records. Rather short stay of the sportsman in a condition of the higher form (about 6 weeks) is reversible, allows to return after decrease in loadings to a condition of the “working” form characterized by high specific and nonspecific resistibility, and to continue playing sports, gradually raising loadings, to rise on more and more high levels of perfection.
But if «for the sake of interests of collective» (a sports society, republic, the country) the sportsman be in a condition of the higher form longer admissible terms in its organism the irreversible pathological changes destroying not only its sports form start to develop, but also its health as a whole. The excessive mode of training and competitive loadings has deduced from a sports life of many best sportsmen – pride of the country: the runner V. Kutsa, the jumper V. Jashchenko, the swimmer M. Koshevuju and many-many other things.
The second principle of sports closely merging with first, based on it –, companionable interaction. At first sight companionable interaction is incompatible with the essence of sports, with struggle for a victory. If someone becomes the winner all the others inevitably will appear won. When it is a question of struggle for a victory, companionable interaction is replaced with the ruthless competition which organic law – to eliminate the opponent, to neutralize it. The defender cannot keep attacking and beats him on feet, breaking bones. Sports skill became hazardous to health; on an athletic field were established «костоломы» (bonecrushers).
Unselfishness – the third principle of sports. More often this principle is interpreted as refusal from material, in particular monetary, by compensations. By known definition of psychologist A. N. Leonteva, activity is characterized by purpose and sense coincidence, i.e. That should turn out, with for what the result is necessary. Coincidence of the purpose and sense of activity characterizes unselfishness. If, joining in sports, the person pursues purely sports aims (for example to show high result to win, become the master of sports, the champion) to become more perfect it’s playing sports is disinterested.
But when enrichment becomes sense of its sports activity, it necessarily should join in activity which assumes its operation by other persons. For good compensation it is ready to compete “by request”, he struggles not for perfection, and for profit, selling the perfection. Sports laws are replaced with professional work laws: aspiration to perfection – necessity to keep up to the mark professional ability to prolong the contract; sports principles – principles of reception of profit: humanism – care of own well-being, companionable interaction – ruthlessness to the competitor, unselfishness – aspiration to the maximum profit.
Whether, laws and principles of this activity the purposes coincide with the purposes, laws and principles of a humane society? Certainly, no. Thereupon those people who having found out lines of professionalism in domestic sports, ascertained its antisocial orientation are absolutely right.
(Authors are from the Branch of the Kuban State University in Slavyansk-on-Kubani and Volgograd State University.)